The Chick-Fil-A Logo

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The image in discuss is the Chick-Fil-A logo. This logo is featured all over Chick-Fil-A product and services that appear both within the restaurants and outside the restaurants. This logo is the main mark that Chick-Fil-A uses to associate themselves with. The logo is made up of text with slight graphic embellishments around the initial C that appears in the logo.

The logo is made up entirely of a script-like cursive typeface that displays all of the letters of the company name, Chick-Fil-A. The typeface in the logo also contains rounded terminal that makes the typeface bubbly. The only color that is used in this logo is the color red, which is a pantone color that is specific to the brand. This means that the color used in this logo should be consistent across all uses, the only exception being those that are permitted within the brand guidebook for the company. There are a few graphic elements that have been placed around the “C” of the typeface in order to create an abstract appearance of a chicken. These graphic elements consist of four ovals above the C which diminish proportionately in size as they follow the stroke of the C. There is a triangular shape that is placed directly above the “h” that the viewer visually connects with the C in order to aid the visibility of the chicken figure. To top it off, there is a small oval that represents an eyeball that is placed within the bowl of the C. Overall the design is minimalistic but still effective in communicating the main item that the brand sells, chicken.

This particular logo for Chick-Fil-A has been in use for many years and because of this, the logo is recognizable for the brand. Despite the fact that the logo spells out the name of the company, people immediately recognize its association with the quick service restaurant chain. The age of the logo speaks volumes for the excellence in its design because people immediately identify with the logo. The logo itself gives off a classic vibe that allows the consumers to feel as though they can trust the brand. A classic vibe means that the logo has not been changed or altered with the design trends throughout the years. While competitors change their logos and typefaces to reflect design trends over the years and for different campaigns, Chick-Fil-A has kept their logo over time that also gives it a timeless aesthetic. The logo is associated with the company that is known for its excellent customer service and speed in deliverance of food and beverage orders.

To conclude, the logo is very successful because it has been able to last so long as the company’s logo and also because it says a lot about the company at a very minimal level. Chick-Fil-A’s main good for sale is chicken and this logo is very effective at showcasing what the company does while comforting the viewer at the same time.

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Irish Type Design

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Irish Type Design. Dermont McGuinne. (Dublin: National Print Museum, 2010. Pp. 219.)

In his book Irish Type Design, Dermont McGuinne describes the history of Irish typography as it developed chronologically. During his survey of the history, he makes reference to the religious or political influences that pushed the development of Irish typography one way or the other. The focus of this book is survey the history of Irish Typography from the 16th century to modern day. This textbook of history is meticulously researched with not only textual notes but also photographic and typographical specimens that showcase the different typefaces as they advance through history. For students, educators, and those who are currently working in the graphic design field with a concentration on typography, this book provides a global perspective, expansive research, knowledge, and analysis of the growth of these typefaces and how it relates to Irish political history. The organization of the book spark interest to religious and political happenings that influenced the way each typeface was created and executed within documents. The book also pays homage to the historical references to the typography and type design and the religious and political needs for typefaces.

At a glance, the topic of the entire book describes different Irish typefaces as they evolved through history and were met by different political needs religious commissions. The statement that the author makes in his thesis is very clearly organized throughout the book. The author organizes this information into chapters that deal with a different era of typefaces pertaining to Irish history. In the opening of the book, McGuinne outlines where his research led him in order to write this book as well as creating interest in how little information is actually available on this subject. This information was difficult for him to obtain because a lot of the type specimens had been destroyed and the few that were saved were locked into libraries and archives that were not easily accessible to the general public. McGuinne had to prove his scholarly intent in order to have access to these archives. The information he obtained was placed into his book and divided into chapters based on typeface. Chapters are organized by the chronological eras of type and include: Queen Elizabeth type, the Louvain Irish type, the Roman Irish type, the Moxon Irish type, the Paris and Parker types, the Barlow and Christie types, the Watts, Fry and Figgens types, the Petrie type, the Newman Irish type, and the Colum Cille type. The concluding chapter of his book compares the Roman glyphs against the Irish glyphs. This concluding comparison is a summation of his research and allows the reader to visually see where Irish typography began and where it currently is. The modern roman characters are have a sturdy structure compared to its predecessors where a heavy manuscript influence was observed in earlier typefaces.

One of the most interesting facts that the author states early in the book is that the original Irish alphabet only had about 18 glyphs in its type library and the author shows, through different type specimens in the later chapters, how these 18 glyphs evolved into the modern alphabet that we know and use today in America. There are many layers of history that the author explores in his book and this detail of how new characters were added is a key detail to explore in this telling of history even if it is a very small fact. When reading more into the book the reader will find that there is an immense growth in the need for typefaces and how many people were involved in producing them. Each era adds on to a new typeface that was more developed than the last. The printers and foundries also became more numerous as history progressed. This book shows not only a history but a birth and growth of an aspect of design.

Another author theme that spans throughout the book is how each typeface was influences or commissioned by political or religious means. The Queen Elizabeth type was actually commissioned by the Queen herself and was used in most of her royal documents. As each typeface began as a unification of manuscript writing, the Irish continued creating manuscript typefaces for all of their typefaces discussed in this book, even the typefaces that have a more roman aesthetic, still have a manuscript influence to them. Queen Elizabeth enjoyed speaking to various foreign visitors to her court in their own language (pg 5). This desire she had is what really led to the development of the typeface that she commissioned. The inspiration for this typeface was actually found in numerous collections of manuscripts The original creator of Queen Elizabeth’s typeface was John Day who was the Queen’s designated printer. Political and diplomatic reasons fueled the Queen’s desire for the typeface but1 the design of the typefaces was taken from religious manuscripts. It is interesting to see two ideologies come together to create something for the furthering of humanity.

The work is a great contribution to history because it was one of the first deep explorations of its topic. There are many books out there that focus on the history and development of type but none of them provide an extensive historical account of Irish type design. This work is excellent for that very reason; it provides an in-depth analysis of a large variety of typefaces that originated in Ireland. An understand of Irish type design and history will provide any typographer or graphic designer with a greater understand of typefaces from all over the world by furthering their understanding of how different nations drew influences from each other and also how they each advanced individually.

Irish Type Design” displays information beautifully and in a way that the hierarchy of information is easy to understand. The amount of research that is evident in the book provides an excellent backbone for the book and makes each chapter full of information. This book not only connects type design to history, but also connects type design to its own development. For students, educators, and graphic designers who want to learn more about the origin and history of Irish type design, this book is one to soak into and examine all of the specimens and facts within its pages.

Lucian Bernhard

Lucian Bernhard was a German designer who earned his place in the art world with his poster design. He began working in poster and advertising because this was the work that he had been doing before he became a name in the art world. Emerging as an artist following the Art Nouveau period, his designs were simple, clean, and minimal in color. Bernhard, as an emerging design, was paving the way for a new style of art and he didn’t even realize that it was happening. Bernhard also did not have a lot of confidence in his work, he did not think that he was good at his craft and had almost given up on design before being discovered. As his artistic career developed, he expanded his horizons and began designing typography, packaging, and textiles as well.

One of his early works was an advertisement done for Manoli cigarettes. This advertisement features a heavy, dark background with a teal type treatment of the company name at the top of the image that spans the width of the image. The next aspect of this design is the flat image of the cigarette box and cigarettes, which is located in the left third of the picture plane. The purpose of this advertisement was to picture only the brand name and the product that they produced. This advertisement, and the others like it that he created, are significant because they were the early development as what eventually would be known as an object poster.

Many companies used this poster style at this time in order to advertise their product. Over time, this flat style that Bernhard had developed expanded into a more colorful, realistic style. The way that Bernhard treated his typography remained mostly the same. He used bold, capital letters that then had another border around them as well to allow for more thickness and more attention. In the advertisement design that he did for Bosch, a car parts company, we can see a much more developed style with more dynamic colors and textures throughout the piece.

While Bernhard’s style was simple, his principle was a legacy in its own. His style was simple and to the point with the display of the company name and then an image of a product that they sold or manufactured. We see this style applied in our own time now because many companies basically use this same principle. For example, in a perfume ad for Moschino and their fragrance Couture, you can see that the product and the brand name are the main focal points of the advertisement. This advertisement does have modern trends of influence but at a basic level of understanding it uses the same principle the Bernhard did. This method of advertisement that he developed clearly works which is why it is still influential to us in modern day.

 

For more reading: http://www.designishistory.com/1920/lucian-bernhard/

Information was also taken for class lectures and the class textbook.

Otto Eckmann

In the time in which Eckmann was alive, he was living in a Germany that was rising to power and well on its way to a united German state and a world power like England already was. For much of its history, Germany seemed to be rising with England almost step for step in the Industrial Revolution and even in the world of art progression (Kitchen).

Otto Eckmann was a very versatile artist from Germany. Eckmann was originally born in Munich in the year 1865. During his early artistic career he was focused very much on painting, as most artists in Germany were before Art Nouveau really broke out (Meggs). From the beginning however, Eckmann had always ben interested in and heavily influenced by Japanese woodblock printing, the Japanese term for this style was Ukiyo-e, and the very organic nature of the lines and overall image. This Japanese influence soon became the driving force of art Nouveau.

This emerging art style that is Art Nouveau, Jugendstil in Germany, was developed out of the Arts and Crafts movement (Kunstgewerbe), which was a revolt by the artists against the Industrial Revolution (Meggs). Eckmann, along with others such as Peter Behrens, were driving forces in this artistic movement. This period in time is where Eckmann became more diverse in his artistic explorations. While Eckmann did start out as a painter he eventually became a printer, graphic designer, jewelry designer and type designer.

Eckmann’s use of organic lines and shapes not only paid homage to Japanese woodcuts but also to the swan. As one may be able conclude, the swan was Eckmann’s favorite animal. A quote from Eckmann himself is: “To borrow from the angry swan the rhythmic line and not the swan- that is the problem of ornamental usage” (Weiss). This means that an artists often forgets just how often nature can influence their artwork and how the world around them can really shape their art.

In order to complete the design of his typeface Eckmann joined with Karl Klingspor, owner of a type foundry. In this foundry is where the typeface Eckmann resided until it eventually found its way into the hands of Linotype.

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Image from Artstor, of Otto Eckmann’s sketchbook

Kitchen, Martin. 2006. History of Modern Germany, 1800-2000. [N.p.]: Blackwell Pub,   2006. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost (accessed September 19, 2016).

Meggs, Philip B., Alston W. Purvis, and Philip B. Meggs. 2012. Meggs’ history of graphic design. n.p.: Hoboken, N.J. : John Wiley & Sons, c2012., 2012. catalogUSMAI, EBSCOhost (accessed September 20, 2016).

Stein, Laurie. A. “Otto Eckmann.” Oxford Art Online. Accessed September 19, 2016. http://www.oxfordartonline.com/

Weiss, Peg. 1979. Kandinsky in Munich : the formative Jugendstil years. n.p.: Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1985. catalogUSMAI, EBSCOhost (accessed September 19, 2016).